For the most part there’re more than 100 rheumatic diseases. These diseases may cause pain, stiffness, and swelling in joints and similar supporting structures of the body like muscles, tendons, ligaments, and bones. Some rheumatic diseases can also affect other parts of the body, including various internal organs. On p of this, many people use the word arthritis to refer to all rheumatic diseases. And here’s, swelling, redness, heat, and pain caused by tissue injury or disease in the joint, the word literally means joint inflammation. Now look. Actually the many different kinds of arthritis comprise just a portion of the rheumatic diseases.
Some rheumatic diseases are described as connective tissue diseases as they affect the body’s connective tissue the supporting framework of the body and its internal organs. Others are known as autoimmune diseases being that they are caused by a issue in which the immunity harms the body’s own healthy tissues. Examples of Rheumatic Diseases Osteoarthritis. Usually, whenever affecting an estimated 20.7 million adults in the United States, known as degenerative joint disease, osteoarthritis is the most common arthritis type. On top of that, osteoarthritis primarily affects cartilage, that is the tissue that cushions the ends of bones within the joint. Osteoarthritis occurs when cartilage begins to fray, wear, and decay. Whenever leaving a bone on bone joint, in extreme cases, the cartilage may wear away entirely. Bony spurs may form at the edges of the joint. Osteoarthritis can cause joint pain, reduced joint motion, loss of function, and disability. Disability results most often when the disease affects the spine and the weightbearing joints. Rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory disease of the synovium, or lining of the joint, that results in pain, stiffness, swelling, deformity, and loss of function in the joints.
Inflammation most often affects joints of the hands and feet and tends to be symmetrical.
This symmetry helps distinguish rheumatoid arthritis from other kinds of arthritis types.
About 1 the percent population has rheumatoid arthritis. Fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia is a chronic disorder that causes pain and stiffness throughout the tissues that support and move the bones and joints. Pain and localized tender points occur in the muscles and tendons, particularly those of the neck, spine, shoulders, and hips. Patients may experience widespread pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbances. Systemic lupus erythematosus. Usually, systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease in which the health harms the body’s own healthy cells and tissues. Essentially, in SLE, therefore this can result in inflammation of and damage to the joints, skin, kidneys, heart, lungs, blood vessels, and brain. Scleroderma. Known as systemic sclerosis, the word scleroderma meanshard skin. It depends on a couple of diseases that almost always affect the skin, blood vessels, and joints. Actually a more serious form also affects internal organs just like the lungs and kidneys. Notice that in scleroderma, So there’s an abnormal and excessive production of collagen in the skin or internal organs. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Have you heard about something like this before? Whenever causing pain, stiffness, swelling, and loss of function in the joints, it’s the most common type of arthritis in childhood. Yes, that’s right! The arthritis might be associated with rashes or fevers, or may affect other parts of the body.
May also cause arthritis in the hips, shoulders, and knees, with that said, this arthritis type primarily affects the spine.
Whenever resulting in pain and stiffness, especially in the lower back, the tendons and ligaments around the bones and joints in the spine become inflamed. Ankylosing spondylitis tends to affect people in late adolescence or early adulthood. Just keep reading! Gout. Normally, this arthritis type results from deposits of needle like crystals of uric acid in the connective tissue, joint spaces, or both. For example, uric acid is a normal breakdown product of purines, that are present in body tissues and in many foods. Therefore, uric acid passes through the kidney into urine and is eliminated. Sodium urate crystals may form in the tendons, ligaments, and cartilage of the joints, if the concentration of uric acid in the blood rises above normal levels. These needle like crystals cause inflammation, swelling, and pain in the affected joint. Just keep reading! The joint most commonly affected is the big toe. Infectious arthritis. Then, it is a general term used to describe forms of arthritis that are caused by infectious agents, similar to bacteria or viruses.
Parvovirus arthritis, gonococcal arthritis, and Lyme disease are examples of infectious arthritis.
In those cases caused by bacteria, early diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics relieve the arthritis symptoms and cure the disease.
Reactive arthritis. That said, this form of arthritis develops after an infection involving the lower urinary tract, bowel, and akin organs. And so it’s commonly associated with eye problems, skin rashes, and mouth sores. A well-known fact that is. Reiter’s syndrome is an example of reactive arthritis. Essentially, psoriatic arthritis. With that said, this form of arthritis occurs in an ordinary scaling skin disorder. Actually, psoriatic arthritis often affects the joints at the ends of the fingers and is accompanied by changes in the fingernails and toenails. Quite a few individuals also have spinal involvement. Notice. Now this condition involves inflammation of the bursae, small, fluidfilled sacs that and identical moving structures in the joints. For example, the inflammation may result from arthritis in the joint or injury or infection of the bursae. Bursitis produces pain and tenderness and may limit the movement of nearby joints. Now look. Tendinitis. You see, this refers to inflammation of tendons caused by overuse, injury, or related rheumatic conditions. Normally, tendinitis produces pain and tenderness and may restrict movement of nearby joints. Actually the causes of rheumatic diseases vary relying on the disease type.
Researchers have pinpointed the cause or causes of some rheumatic diseases, just like infectious arthritis and gout.
The causes of most rheumatic diseases are still under investigation.
In osteoarthritis, excessive stress on the joint, from repeated injury or inherited cartilage weakness, may play a role. In lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and scleroderma, the combination of genetic factors that determine susceptibility, the influence of certain hormones, and environmental triggers are believed to be important. Considering the above said. Scientists are also studying the risk factors that determine why quite a few people develop rheumatic diseases and others do not. Being overweight increases the likelihood that a person will develop osteoarthritis.
And therefore the chance of developing osteoarthritis also increases with age. Whenever ankylosing spondylitis, scleroderma, and like lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, and fibromyalgia, are more common among women. That said, this indicates that hormones and similar malefemale differences play a role in the development of these conditions. The question is. Who Is Affected by Arthritis and Rheumatic Conditions? Accordingly an estimated 40 million people in the United States have arthritis and similar rheumatic conditions. By the year 2020, so this number is expected to reach 59 million. Rheumatic diseases are the leading cause of disability among adults age 65 and older.
Rheumatic diseases affect people of all races and ages.
Some rheumatic conditions are more common among certain populations.
For instance. Furthermore, rheumatoid arthritis occurs two to three times more often in women than in men. Scleroderma is more common in women than in men. Eventually, nine 10 out people who have lupus are women. Nine 10 out people who have fibromyalgia are women. Gout is more common in men than in women. Lupus is three times more common in AfricanAmerican women than in Caucasian women. Needless to say, ankylosing spondylitis is more common in men than in women. As a result, different kinds of arthritis types have different symptoms. People who have arthritis have pain and stiffness in the joints. Quite a few more common symptoms are listed in the box on this page. Early diagnosis and treatment as long as some symptoms and signs are common to many different diseases. General practitioner or family doctor can evaluate a patient or refer him or her to a rheumatologist. By the way, the doctor will review the patient’s medical history, conduct a physical examination, and obtain laboratory tests and X rays and similar imaging tests. Doctor may need to see the patient more than once to make an accurate diagnosis. Oftentimes Surely it’s vital for people with joint pain to give the doctor a complete medical history. Answers to the following questions will might be helpful for people to keep a daily journal that describes the pain.
Patients must write down what the affected joint looks like, how it feels, how long the pain lasts, and what they have been doing when the pain started.
The doctor will examine the patient’s joints for redness, warmth, deformity, ease of movement, and tenderness.
Just like lupus, may affect other organs, a complete physical examination including the heart, lungs, abdomen, nervous system, and eyes, ears, and throat should be necessary, because doctor may order some laboratory tests to might be needed for the tests. Seriously. Common Laboratory Tests Antinuclear antibody. Then, this test checks blood levels of antibodies that are often present in people who have connective tissue diseases and similar autoimmune disorders, like lupus. Besides, they are referred to as antinuclear antibodies, since the antibodies react with material in the cell’s nucleus. So there’re also tests for individual kinds of ANA’s that might be more specific to people with certain autoimmune disorders.
ANA’s are also sometimes found in healthy people.
Having ANA’s in the blood does not necessarily mean that a person has a disease.
Arthrocentesis. Arthrocentesis or joint aspiration is done to obtain a sample of synovial fluid. Doctor injects a local anesthetic, inserts a thin, hollow needle into the joint, and removes the synovial fluid into a syringe. It’s an interesting fact that the test provides important diagnostic information. On p of that, the test allows the doctor to see whether crystals or bacteria or viruses are present in the joint. Complement. Oftentimes this test measures the degree of complement, a number of proteins in the blood. Complement helps destroy foreign substances, like germs, that enter the body. Besides, a low blood degree of complement is common in people who have active lupus. Complete blood count. Oftentimes this test determines the tal amount of whitish blood cells, light red blood cells, and platelets present in a sample of blood. Some rheumatic conditions or drugs used to treat arthritis are associated with a low white blood count, low redish blood count, or low platelet count. They periodically test the patient’s blood, when doctors prescribe medications that affect the CBC. Creatinine. With that said, this blood test is commonly ordered in patients who have rheumatic diseases to monitor for underlying kidney disease. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Let me tell you something. With that said, this blood test is used to detect inflammation in the body. Higher sed rates indicate the presence of inflammation and are typical of many forms of arthritis, like rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis, and loads of the connective tissue diseases. Hematocrit.
With that said, this test and the test for hemoglobin measure the general number of redish blood cells present in a sample of blood.
a decrease in the tal number of redish blood cells is common in people with inflammatory arthritis and rheumatic diseases.
Rheumatoid factor. With that said, this test determines whether rheumatoid factor is present in the blood. Rheumatoid factor is an antibody found in the blood of most people who have rheumatoid arthritis. Anyway, rheumatoid factor can be found in many other diseases besides rheumatoid arthritis, and sometimes in normal, healthy people. Urinalysis. That’s interesting. In this test, an urine sample is studied for protein, dark red blood cells, almost white blood cells, or casts. These abnormalities indicate kidney disease, that may be seen in a few rheumatic diseases like lupus or vasculitis. Now this test determines the overall amount of almost white blood cells present in a sample of blood. Actually the number may increase because of infection or decrease in response to certain medications, or with certain diseases, like lupus. Low numbers of whitish blood cells increase a person’s risk of infections. Remember, the role you play in developing your treatment plan is very important.
You can work gether since It is vital for you to have a perfect relationship with your doctor.
As a rule of a thumb, not be afraid to ask questions about your condition or treatment.
You must know the treatment plan and tell the doctor if I know it’s helping you. Studies have shown that patients who are well informed and participate actively in their own care experience less pain and make fewer visits to the doctor than other patients do. So doctor may order X rays and akin imaging procedures, with intention to see what the joint looks like inside. They do not show the cartilage, muscles, and ligaments, xrays provide an image of the bones.
Other noninvasive imaging methods like computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and arthrography show that joint.
The doctor may also use an arthroscope to examine damage to a joint.
So arthroscope is inserted into the affected joint through a very small incision in the skin. Now this procedure, called arthroscopy, allows the doctor to see inside the joint. Doctors also use arthroscopy to perform surgery for similar to splints or braces. Of course, in severe cases, surgery should be necessary. Doctor and the patient work gether to develop a treatment plan that helps the patient maintain or improve kinds of treatment types and vary determined by the rheumatic condition and the patient.
People who have a rheumatic disease must develop a comfortable balance between rest and activity.
One many sign rheumatic conditions is fatigue. Patients must pay attention to signals from their bodies. However, when experiencing pain or fatigue, it’s crucial to take a break and rest. Anticipation of wellbeing. That said, people with arthritis should talk with their doctor, before starting any exercise program. People with arthritis can participate in various sports and exercise programs. Exercises that doctors often recommend include ‘Rangeofmotion’ exercises to gether with exercise, a well balanced diet helps people manage their body weight and stay healthy. Weight control is important to people who have arthritis since extra weight puts extra pressure on kinds of arthritis types. Of course, diet is especially important for people who have gout. People with gout must avoid alcohol and foods that are high in purines, like organ meats, sardines, anchovies, and gravy. Now pay attention please. Plenty of medications are used to treat rheumatic diseases. Medication type depends on the rheumatic disease and on the individual patient. Have you heard about something like that before? Rather limit the symptoms of the disease, at this time, the medications used to treat most rheumatic diseases do not provide a cure. Now look, the one exception is treatments for infectious arthritis. Arthritis associated with an infection can usually be cured with antibiotics, if caught early enough. Medications commonly used to treat rheumatic diseases provide relief from pain and inflammation.
In and akin parts of the body. That said, this fact sheet describes the medications most commonly used to treat pain and inflammation. Since medications can hide important symptoms and thereby interfere with diagnosis, the doctor may delay using medications until a definite diagnosis is made. Nonetheless, patients taking any medication, either prescription or over the counter, should always follow the doctor’s instructions. Doctor going to be notified immediately if the medicine is making the symptoms worse or causing other problems, like an upset stomach, nausea, or headache. I know that the doctor might be able to change the dosage or medicine to reduce these consequences. On p of this, other nonsteroidal ‘anti inflammatory’ drugs similar to ibuprofen; and acetaminophen are used to reduce the pain caused by many rheumatic conditions, Analgesics just like aspirin.
Aspirin and NSAID’s have the added benefit of decreasing the inflammation associated with arthritis.
Certain analgesics, just like aspirin and NSAID’s, can have consequences, just like stomach irritation, that can be reduced by changing the dosage or the medication.
Besides, the dosage will vary relying upon the particular illness and the overall health of the patient. Did you know that the doctor and patient must work gether to determine which analgesic to use and the appropriate amount. Now look, the doctor may use other medications, according to the diagnosis, I’d say if analgesics do not ease the pain. Brand names included in this fact sheet are provided as examples only, and their inclusion does not mean that these products are endorsed by the National Institutes of Health or any other Government agency. I’m sure you heard about this. I’d say if a particular brand name ain’t mentioned, now this does not mean that the product is unsatisfactory. That’s where it starts getting very serious. Corticosteroids, just like prednisone, cortisone, solumedrol, and hydrocortisone, are used to treat many rheumatic conditions since they decrease inflammation and suppress the overall health.
Basically, the patient and doctor must work gether to determine what dose is best for the patient, The dosage of these medications will vary relying upon the diagnosis and the patient.
Corticosteroids can be given by mouth, in creams applied to the skin, or by injection.
Shortterm aftereffects of corticosteroids include swelling, increased appetite, weight gain, and emotional ups and downs. These consequences generally stop when the drug is stopped. Loads of information can be found by going online. It’s very important that the doctor and patient work gether when changing the corticosteroid dose, it can be dangerous to stop taking corticosteroids suddenly. Aftereffects that may occur after longterm use of corticosteroids include stretch marks, excessive hair growth, osteoporosis, high blood pressure, damage to the arteries, high blood sugar, infections, and cataracts.
Others may not, nevertheless some rheumatic diseases respond to analgesics and corticosteroids. We’re talking about prescribed to slow the course of the disease or to treat disease specific symptoms, Rheumatoid arthritis, gout, lupus, scleroderma, and fibromyalgia are most of the rheumatic diseases that routinely require other medications. Heat and cold can both be used to reduce the pain and inflammation of arthritis. As a result, both therapies come in different forms, and the patient and doctor can determine which form works best. They are usually avoided in acute gout, studies have shown heat and cold therapies to be equally effective in reducing pain. Heat therapy increases blood flow, lerance for pain, and flexibility. Heat therapy can involve treatment with paraffin wax, microwaves, ultrasound, or moist heat. Patients can apply moist heat themselves, physical therapists are required in case you want to apply paraffin wax, or use microwave or ultrasound therapy. Known that helps relax tense muscles and relieve pain. Exercising in a large pool is easier as long as water takes some weight off painful joints. With that said, this exercise type improves muscle strength and joint movement. Mobilization therapies include traction, massage, and manipulation. These methods can and later slowly releases the tension. For instance, doctors and physical therapists can teach patients progressive relaxation and identical relaxation techniques. Most common assistive devices for treating arthritis pain are splints and braces, that are used to support weakened joints or allow them to rest.
Others allow some movement, quite a few of these devices prevent the joint from moving.
A splint or brace going to be used only when recommended by a doctor or therapist, who will show the patient the correct way to put the device on, ensure that it fits properly, and explain when and for how long it might be worn.
I know that the incorrect use of a splint or brace can cause joint damage, stiffness, and pain. Person with arthritis can use other kinds of devices to ease the pain. Have you heard of something like that before? The use of a cane when walking can reduce most of the weight placed on an arthritic knee or hip. Shoe insert can ease the pain of walking caused by arthritis of the foot or knee. Surgery might be required to repair damage to a joint after trauma or to restore function or relieve pain in a joint damaged by arthritis.
Doctor may recommend arthroscopic surgery, bone fusion, or arthroplasty.
At this time, the main arthritis type that can be cured is that caused by infections.
Exercise, and medication, look, there’re no cures, nonetheless symptoms of other kinds of arthritis types can be effectively managed with rest. Loads of individuals claim to been cured by treatment with herbs, oils, chemicals, special diets, radiation, and similar products. For the most part there’s no scientific evidence that such treatments are helpful in patients with arthritis and, moreover, they may actually cause harm with the development of after effect. Patients should talk to their doctor before using any therapy that has not been prescribed or recommended by the health care team caring for the patient. Studies show that an estimated 18 Americans percent who have arthritis and similar rheumatic conditions think that their condition limits their activities.
People with arthritis may find that they can no longer participate in a certain amount their favorite activities, that can affect their overall ‘wellbeing’.
Even when arthritis impairs only one joint, a person may have to change many daily activities to protect that joint from further damage and reduce pain.
When arthritis affects the entire body many daily activities have to be changed to deal with pain, as it does in people with rheumatoid arthritis or fibromyalgia, fatigue, and similar symptoms. Changes in the home may identical disease, their support can make it easier to cope. By the way, the Arthritis Foundation has a wealth of information to I know that the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, a part of the National Institutes of Health, leads the Federal medical research effort in arthritis and rheumatic diseases. However, the NIAMS sponsors research and research training on the NIH campus in Bethesda, Maryland, and at universities and medical centers throughout the United States. Although, the NIAMS supports three centers types. Notice that multipurpose Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases Centers, Specialized Centers of Research, and Core Centers.
Did you know that the MAMDC’s foster a multidisciplinary approach to the many problems of arthritis and musculoskeletal diseases and develop new capabilities for research into other diseases. Centers develop and carry out research in basic or laboratory and clinical science, professional and patient education, and epidemiology and health services. Any SCOR focuses on a single disease. By doing laboratory and clinical studies under one roof, these centers aim to accelerate basic research on the causes of these diseases and to hasten transfer of advances from the laboratory to the bedside and improve patient care. For instance, core Centers promote interdisciplinary collaborative efforts among scientists engaged in highquality research associated with a similar theme. By providing funding for facilities, pilot and feasibility studies, and program enrichment activities at the Core Center, the Institute reinforces and amplifies investigations already ongoing in NIAMS program areas. Core Centers are currently targeted for skin diseases and for musculoskeletal disorders. With that said, some current NIAMS research efforts in rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, lupus, and scleroderma are outlined below. Generally, researchers are doing best in order to identify the causes of rheumatoid arthritis in the hope that understanding the cause will lead to new treatments.
They are examining the role that the endocrine, nervous, and immune systems play, and the ways in which these systems interact with environmental and genetic factors in the development of rheumatoid arthritis.
Striving to determine whether an infectious agent triggers rheumatoid arthritis.
Others are studying the role of certain enzymes in breaking down cartilage. Consequently, researchers are also attempting to identify the genetic factors that place plenty of people at higher risk than others for developing rheumatoid arthritis. Nevertheless, scientists are looking at new ways to treat rheumatoid arthritis. So, they are experimenting with new drugs andbiologic agents that selectively block certain health activities associated with inflammation. Now let me tell you something. Recent studies suggest that these represent promising approaches to treatment. Usually, other investigators have shown that minocycline and doxycycline, two antibiotic medications in the tetracycline family, have a modest benefit for people with rheumatoid arthritis.
Researchers are working to understand what role certain enzymes play in the breakdown of joint cartilage in osteoarthritis and are testing drugs that block the action of these enzymes. So a gene that might be linked to an inherited type of osteoarthritis has recently been discovered. Researchers are looking at how genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors influence the development of systemic lupus erythematosus. That said, they are doing best in order to make sure why lupus is more common in certain populations. There had been very promising progress in identifying the genes that should be responsible for lupus. Now please pay attention. Newer, more selective drugs that suppress the health; and efforts to correct immune abnormalities with bone marrow transplantation, Promising areas of treatment research include biologic agents. Clinical studies are underway to determine the safety of estrogens for hormone replacement therapy and birth control in women with lupus. So, contrary to the widely held belief that estrogens can make the disease worse, recent data suggest that these drugs might be safe for some women with lupus. Current studies on scleroderma are focusing on three the disease areas.
Researchers hope to discover how these three elements interact with one another to cause and promote scleroderma.
In one recent study, researchers found evidence of fetal cells within the blood and skin lesions of women who had been pregnant years before developing scleroderma.